Control of breeding conditions, especially ventilation (temperature, humidity, clean air), is very important in poultry farming. The poultry respiratory system is tubular and has branchings that end with air bags, and when the tail is exchanged, the respiratory rate of poultry is almost twice as high as the other animals.
On the other hand, with genetic modifications made in newborns, the growth of birds has increased dramatically, and for almost 6 weeks, the weight of birds is fifty times the weight of the initial weight, which is why the supply of oxygen and the disposal of harmful gases in birds is important. It is special.
Ventilation is not just a simple airflow in the hall, but it is also important to create the right conditions for supplying oxygen to the birds and eliminating harmful gases at the body surface of the birds.
Ventilation is one of the most important means of controlling the biological conditions in the breeding room, which is why ventilation is one of the most basic management elements in poultry farms.
The ventilation of the poultry farms has the following benefits:
Removing heat and excess moisture from the salon
Increase salon capacity
Increase the life of the equipment
And finally, ventilation will increase profits.
Perhaps creating the most appropriate ventilation is the most difficult part of broiler breeding, and the condition of ventilation should always be taken into account.
One of the issues that needs to be addressed about ventilation is the use of trees around the courtyard that are evergreen and evergreens, other than the VEB scheme in these halls, due to the presence of trees around the poultry houses The entry of clean air into the room and the buffering of the air in the inside of the poultry house cause contaminated air, ammonia gas, carbon dioxide and ODORS to be absorbed by these trees, and air is buffered and helps to reduce environmental contamination. In fact, for neighbors around the hall, there will be fewer air pollution and less nuisance and increased bio-security.
Ventilation in the summer should be such that warm air moves upwards on the chickens.
The ventilation in the winter should be such that the air is transferred from the top to the bottom.
Types of ventilation for poultry farms:
Open halls: Open air ducts are subject to ambient conditions outside the room in terms of temperature, humidity and light.
Closed saloons: In indoor salons, interior conditions of the hall are ventilated, temperature, light and humidity are controlled.
The ventilation of poultry package halls is in two ways:
Natural ventilation :
In this kind of ventilation, natural and free forces such as hot air climb and its positioning with cold air as well as natural air flow (wind) are used, and thus the dirty air of the hall is directed to the outside.
When the outdoor temperature is the same as the indoor temperature, a natural ventilation system can be used to move the air in open air halls.
In order to ventilate, commonly used ceiling valves or windows in the hall.
In order to improve the quality of ventilation, the southern windows usually look at the floor near the floor (one meter below the floor) and the north windows close to the ceiling (half a meter), and it is necessary in this case the ratio of the inlet air to the outlet is less than 2 to 1 Be
In the meantime, if there is a wind in the area, it helps to ventilate the hall.
The benefits of this system are that ventilation is done without energy, and the investment is that ventilation is done without energy, and the initial investment of this system is less than the mechanical system.
The disadvantages of this system is that the ventilation of the hall is affected by environmental conditions and in conditions that require a proper ventilation or is not applicable in hot climates.
If the ventilation system is implemented in a hall, because the volume of ventilation is greatly reduced, a ventilation system or HRV can be retrofitted at a very low cost, so that in the winter, the air enters the hall. Heat up to at least 20 degrees Celsius. Hot and dirty air passes through the air-to-air passage through the floor channels through the floor channels and transfers heat to a cool and clean entrance.
Mechanical ventilation Generally, the components of the ventilation system in the poultry farms include:
Air intake valves
Ventilator control system (thermostat, rheostat, etc.)
In this system, using energy, the air is flowing through the hall, which includes three different situations:
Ventilation with negative pressure (Sucker):
In this negative or negative ventilation system, the air is exhausted through the ventilator, and due to the lowering of indoor air pressure, fresh air is sucked into the hall. In this system, taking into account the amount of air required, there should not be any other vents. There will be in the hall.
The disadvantage of this is that because the air vents are in direct contact with the air in the hall, then there is a possibility of dirt and shorten their useful life.
Also the type, size and location of the air inlet should be appropriate to the weather conditions of the area and the ventilation capacity.
This system is used in cold weather to meet the minimum requirements for ventilation requirements for birds, and in this case fresh and hot air is supplied through hot air furnaces.
The maximum required air in the negative pressure ventilation system is 7 to 4 cubic meters per hour per kilogram live weight.
In order to provide adequate air pressure in the nest, the dimensions of the air intake should be proportional to the ventilation capacity.
For this purpose, 100 m 3 of air is required to evacuate the surface at 0.3 m 2.
For example, a meter with a discharge capacity of 22,000 cubic meters per hour needs an aeration area of the following.
LPV negative pressure conditioning system:
This system is currently one of the most advanced air conditioning systems in the world. The system is designed so that the environmental conditions are easily controlled by the system and the weather conditions are always constant in the poultry farm throughout the year.
Positive pressure ventilator (blower):
In a positive pressure ventilation system or a blower system, clean air is directed directly through the ventilators through the air, resulting in a positive (high) but mild pressure, and this method of causing blindness due to the presence of Possible pores are prevented and the possibility of stopping air movement in the hall is eliminated.
In this method, the air contaminated with toxic gases, humidity, and dust is not directly in contact with the ventilators, and on the other hand, the air can be heated, cold, dry, wet or disinfected before entering, but the problem It is that due to the high pressure, the air in the hall can penetrate and destroy the adjacent areas, pores and building materials.
Fans with equal pressure:
In this type of ventilation both air intake and air exhaust are carried out by air vents. There are also advantages and disadvantages of the two methods of this method.
However, it is advisable to use a manometer to determine whether a ventilation in a poultry farm is subject to airflow (natural ventilation, positive ventilation, negative ventilation conditioning).
The manometer is a device that can be used to determine the type of ventilation. The device consists of a U-shaped plastic tube filled with mercury that can be used to estimate static pressure.